Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac diseaseIntestines disorders of non-infectious origin

Intestines are the lower part of gastro intestinal system. Many digestion and most absorption processes take place in the intestines. Intestines can be affected due to infectious and non-infectious agents. Currently only non-infectious intestinal disorders are monitored by YouShield application, including inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) and celiac disease.

Intestines disorders and their reasons

Intestines disorders causes are not precisely unknown. Previously, physicians suspected diet and stress, but it became obvious that these factors may enforce the disease but don't cause for example, ulcerative colitis.
One possible cause is a dysfunction of an immune system malfunction. When your immune system works on protecting organism from penetrating virus or bacterium, an immune reaction makes it to attack the cells in the digestive tract, too.
Although there are many hypotheses about reasons of Crohn's disease, none of them have been proven. It’s important to be aware the possible causes of Crohn's disease and how they influence one another. Doing so can help us guess about the causes and methods of Crohn's disease treatment.
Medical professionals suppose that Crohn's disease is caused by a combination of immune system disorders, genetics and environmental factors.
Celiac disease: normally, our organism’s immune system is able to protect it from harmful invaders. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten (an element called protein that is contained in some grains), their immune system forms antibodies to gluten which then attack the intestinal lining. It leads to inflammation in the intestines and hurts the villi, the hair-like structures that absorbs nutrients from food. Villi are located on the lining of the small intestine. If the villi are damaged, the body doesn’t absorb nutrients well and ends up malnourished, no matter how much we eat.

Types of Intestines disorders of non-infectious origin

We will consider three of intestines disorders: ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and celiac disease.

Crohn’s disease is called after Dr. Burrill B. Crohn, who first described it in 1932. Crohn’s disease is attributed to a group of conditions known as Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Crohn’s disease is a continuous irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. Crohn’s most commonly strikes both the end of the small bowel and the edge of the colon, as well as it may affect any part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, from the mouth to the anus. Crohn's is a chronic disease, so this means patients may have periods when the disease bursts out and makes them fill its symptoms, and periods of remission when they don’t have symptoms at all.

In more complicated cases, Crohn’s may lead to development of tears (fissures) in the lining of the anus, which makes one experience pain and bleeding, especially when bowel is moving. Inflammation may also develop a fistula that leads from one loop of intestine to another. A fistula connects the intestine to the vagina, skin or bladder,. This is a serious condition that requires quick medical advice and intervention.

Ulcerative colitis. Ulcerative colitis development takes place in the colon, also called the large intestine. Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease of the large intestine, in which the lining of the colon is inflamed and is covered small sores, or ulcers, that produce pus and mucous. The combination of inflammation and ulceration results in severe abdominal pain and frequent defecations.

Ulcerative colitis is the result of an abnormal reaction by your body's immune system. Normally, the cells and proteins that make up the immune system protect you from infection. The immune system of patients with IBD reacts to food, bacteria, and other materials in the intestine as to foreign or invading substances. In such cases, the organism dispatches white blood cells into the lining of the intestines, causing ulcerations and chronic inflammation. The difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease however is substantial. Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, while ulcerative colitis affects only the colon. Additionally, while Crohn’s disease can affect all layers of the bowel wall, ulcerative colitis is limited to the lining of the colon.

Celiac disease. It is an autoimmune disorder that happens to genetically predisposed people where the ingestion of gluten leads to deterioration in the small intestine. It is estimated to affect every 100th person worldwide. Two and a half million Americans don’t know about having it and are at risk for long-term health problems.

Signs and symptoms of Intestines disorders of non-infectious origin

Typical symptoms of ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease and celiac disease are: bloating, increased bowel gas, diarrhea, weight loss, abdominal pain, blood in stools, fever.

What to do if YouShield warned you of Intestines non-infectious disease?

If one or more of these symptoms are mentioned by a user, the application runs Intestinal disorders of non-infectious origin model, which includes Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and ulcerative colitis and suggests the following lab tests to be performed to increase accuracy of risk estimation:

Fecal calprotectin — Dimer of calcium binding proteins

CRP – substance produced by the liver in response to inflammation

Anti-tTG IgA - one of tests that may be used to diagnose celiac disease

HGB - Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues so that they function effectively

Occult Blood - Blood elements in stool

As results of lab tests are entered into the system all available data is processed to estimate risk of certain health conditions. Simultaneously, the system provides accuracy of this estimation; the fewer numbers entered the lower would be the accuracy.